Thursday, April 3, 2014


at 11:55am

Come hear guest speaker, Manuel Rosa, Historian and Author of 5 foreign language books on the falsified history of the "Discoverer of America". Mr. Rosa participated in the DNA studies of Columbus bones, has been featured on BBC and WNPR and will present facts gathered over his 23 years of scientific research that show the current history of Columbus includes fraudulent documents, intentional lies, and patriotic inventions, all meant to cover-up the true identity of Columbus as well as his real reason for the 1492 voyage. A controversial author of a controversial subject that has puzzled academics for 500 years.

The audience will have opportunity to ask questions after the lecture.

Sponsored by Duke's Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies and Mi Gente 

- Free to the Public -

Tuesday, September 17, 2013

Fundacja Kościuszkowska Polska - COLUMBUS DAY 2013

Was Columbus Polish?
MONDAY, OCTOBER 14, 2013, AT 5:00PM
Manuel Rosa will be presenting a lecture at The Kosciuszko Foundation de-shrouding the myth surrounding the man who discovered America.

The event, an extension of the Kosciuszko Foundation's partnership with Early Music Foundation's New York Early Music Celebration 2013: Pro Musica Polonica, is sure to raise thought-provoking inquiries into our assumed knowledge of Christopher Columbus, the man!

In THE SECRET IDENTITY OF COLUMBUS: PEASANT TO VICEROY IN 33 DAYS Rosa sets out to prove that Columbus' history has never been examined or questioned, and is in fact misleading at best. Mr. Rosa's 22 year adventurous investigation involved the discovery of unknown facts regarding historical documents, the information that the supposedly Italian Columbus rarely even used the language in his correspondences, and the sheer impossibility of a peasant Columbus being able to marry into nobility and carry out his quest. In short, Columbus was no simple wool-weaver's son.

His lectures, presented at universities, schools and organizations in Portugal, Spain, Poland, Switzerland, and USA, are succeeding in convincing attendees that the history of Columbus that we knew contained little truth and his books have become the standard by which Columbus biographies are being judged. Mr. Rosa was also the only Portuguese historian involved with DNA studies of Columbus' bones at the University of Granada.
Mr. Rosa will be selling limited quantities of his book, published in Polish:  "KOLUMB. Historia Nieznana" and is due to release his book,  KOLUMBAS. ATSKLEISTA ISTORIJA in Lithuania (February 2014).
The lecture will be held at the KF house on October 14th, to coincide with Columbus Day. 

Wednesday, August 7, 2013

KOLUMBAS. Atskleista istorija ??


Sunday, March 24, 2013

Christopher Columbus’s True Identity Unmasked

By Jon Platakis - Founder/Chairman of the National Lithuanian American Hall of Fame, exclusive for the Lithuania Tribune

Will the National Lithuanian American Hall of Fame have Christopher Columbus as a new candidate for induction? The answer looks to be yes, according to a new theory that Columbus was the Portuguese-born son to the King of Poland, Hungary and Lithuania, Wladyslaw III.
How could this be true? The hypothesis supporting Columbus’s royal origins was first published in 2009 in the Spanish book “COLON: La Historia Nunca Contada,” and then in 2012 in the best-selling Polish book, “KOLUMB: Historia Nieznana,” both written by Manuel Rosa, a Portuguese-American historian and author who has been recasting the Columbus biography in the light of recently uncovered evidence.
Book author - Manuel Rosa
On April 6, 2013, Manuel Rosa will present a lecture at Boalsburg’s Columbus Chapel, in Boalsburg, PA, ( where more evidence will be presented supporting his conclusion that Columbus was of Polish-Lithuanian descent.

The fact that Columbus used some 80 Portuguese toponyms to name the New World, and that he never wrote in Italian, but did write in Portuguese flavored Spanish, and referred to Portugal as his homeland constitute clues to his Portuguese identity. To substantiate the noble birth, Rosa points out that Columbus and his two brothers had easy access to four courts in Europe, and one brother even lived as a guest of the King of France, all of this long before 1492. Among the more intriguing new pieces of evidence, Rosa shows that the Last Will of 1498 (Mayorazgo or deed of primogeniture), where Columbus supposedly claimed to be “born in Genoa,” is a forgery written by a Genoese interloper long after Columbus died. Henry Harrisse had considered the 1498 Last Will a forgery from a later period, but Rosa was the first to prove that the document was falsified.
After reading the known biographies of Columbus, one realizes that there are enough bits and pieces to support the idea that Columbus, his biographer son Fernando, and the court of Spain made herculean efforts to obscure his true identity and origins. Columbus even changed his name in Spain to that of Cristóbal Colón in order to distance himself from his true lineage. Cristóbal Colón is the only name he ever used during his public life and there is no record in Spain of what his original name was. That by itself does not prove Columbus was royalty, but it appears that, if the identity was successfully obscured during his lifetime, it is almost impossible at this point in history to definitively prove Columbus’s true identity without forensic research. All that remains is the evidence that the obscuring was done and a few clues pointing to his true identity.
Over the centuries, many respected historians came up with different opinions about the true birthplace of Columbus. They had to speculate about what the truth might be since little evidence remains. The majority of scholars came to a conviction that Cristóbal Colón, discoverer, was the same person as Cristoforo Colombo, Genoese wool-weaver, while other historians supported their own convictions that the wool-weaver and the discoverer could not be the same person.
The Italian historian, Paolo Emilio Taviani, fierce proponent of the Genoese Colombo wrote: “What wild imaginings could have generated a Greek Columbus, an English Columbus, three French Columbuses, and, as if that were not enough, a Corsican Columbus, a Swiss Columbus, and three Portuguese Columbuses? For an explanation, we can look only to the immeasurable greatness of Columbus’s achievement and to its profound consequences on the course of human history.
Antonio Ballesteros Beretta wrote: “One person is responsible for the polemics about the birthplace of Christopher Columbus, and that person is his own son Ferdinand, who, in his biography of his father, displayed ignorance and doubts on a subject which, on the contrary, he should have known well. His dubious attitude” continues Ballesteros, “about the Discoverer’s origins has given rise to an endless series of hypotheses, some of which are farfetched and fantastic.” Ballesteros adamantly stuck to the belief that Christopher and his son Ferdinand were peasants who wanted to conceal, with a “claim of noble ancestry, their humble wool-weaving origins.”
Stanley Balzekas, (Owner of Balzekas Museum of Lithuanian Culture in Chicago) Eglė Juodvalkė (Lithuanian author and poet), Manuel Rosa and Eric Steele (Columbus authors), Henryk Skwarczynski (Polish author) and Rita Janz (director of Balzekas Museum)
Stanley Balzekas, (Owner of Balzekas Museum of Lithuanian Culture in Chicago) Eglė Juodvalkė (Lithuanian author and poet), Manuel Rosa and Eric Steele (Columbus authors), Henryk Skwarczynski (Polish author) and Rita Janz (director of Balzekas Museum)
Another historian, Felipe Fernández-Armesto wrote that “The Catalan, French, Galician, Greek, Ibizan, Jewish, Majorcan,Polish, Scottish, and other increasingly silly Columbuses concocted by historical fantasists are agenda-driven creations.” Like many, Fernández-Armesto, claimed that the“evidence of Columbus’s origins in Genoa is overwhelming,” referring to certain Genoese documents purported to be “beyond the possibility of doubt” about Columbus’s early life. They claim those documents identify the discoverer Colón as the son of Domenico Colombo, a wool-weaver from Genoa.
These Genoese documents were proudly published by the City of Genoa in 1892 and 1896 in a collection of books known by its short tile of Raccolta Colombiana. There one can clearly see that the Cristoforo Colombo of Genoa was by trade nothing more than a lanaiolo: a lowly wool-weaver, son of another wool-weaver.
Mr. Taviani and the other supporters of the Genoese Columbus, however, completely downplayed the fact that the discoverer was a man with extensive schooling who moved within noble circles and that, in Spain, Columbus’s origins were maintained secret from the public. Thus, the Genoese theory discarded many inconvenient truths and invented details to mesh the weaver’s life with the discoverer’s life.
One of the questions we asked Mr. Rosa was how could these accepted documents be contested?
“In actuality there should not even be a need to contest them, because anyone who spends a few hours looking at them will realize that the documents from Genoa are related to a completely different person and have nothing to do with the life of the discoverer. However, since those documents have been accepted for over a century as being related to the discoverer, one is forced to explain them,” Mr. Rosa stated.
When pressed for more specifics, he advises reading his books carefully as they cover 22 years of scientific research that tackle each issue step by step. “However”, he cautioned, “keep in mind that most of the documents in the Raccolta Colombiana are fodder and irrelevant to the solution of Columbus’s identity. Some of the documents do not even exist from the date they were supposedly created but are only referenced in other documents centuries later. Other documents are forged to add information that was not there initially.”
In fact, copies of documents that made it out of Genoa prior to the start of the Columbus controversy, such as Antonio Gallo’s chronicle, do not even mention Columbus, while Gallo’s copy found in Genoa today does. Of the four manuscripts that are attributed to Gallo, where the “Columbus brothers” are mentioned, (British Codex, Torino Codex, Civica Genoa Codex and Federici Codex) NOT ONE is from 1506, when Gallo wrote his chronicle. They are copies done in the 17th and 18th Centuries. Interestingly the Codex stored in the Library of Copenhagen “Ms. Reale antico fondo n. 2205″ the oldest writing from the sixteenth century – therefore written long before the British, Torino, Civica and Federici codexes – has nothing in it about “Columbus brothers”! Clearly Gallo had not written this additional text about Columbus before he died, someone added it later. The famous Asseretto Document was doctored in the Italian publications to remove several blank pages, fraudulently making it look like the text was continuous.
These are only some examples that show how unreliable the Genoese documents and the Raccolta Colombiana are to solving the mystery of Columbus’s identity. “What the Raccolta Colombiana did was help to cover up the truth for yet another 100 years” claims Rosa.
Considered one of today’s leading scholars on the life of Columbus, Mr. Rosa points out that Ferdinand Colón, the discoverer’s son, claimed that his father descended not only from Italian aristocracy, but from the legendary Roman General Colonius and that people were wrong to call him “Christopher Columbus” in Latin, warning that the correct Latin form is “Christopher Colonus.” While historians widely inferred that Christopher Columbus used this noble persona to ingratiate himself to the good graces of the Spanish court in an elaborate illusion to mask a humble weaver background, Rosa thinks Ferdinand was telling the truth. The historians, going against solid evidence in Spain and Portugal, came up with the wrong solution swapping “Cristobal Colón” for a “genovés Cristoforo Colombo.”
The particulars were not always obvious, but because of his familiarity with the Portuguese history of the discoveries and fluency in several languages, Rosa was able to see that something was not right in the official narrative. His biggest clue came when he learned that Columbus had married a Portuguese noblewoman in 1479, a full 14 years before becoming famous in Spain. Knowing that peasants and wool-weavers could never marry nobility, it was apparent something was not correct. By examining more carefully Columbus’s assumed identity, he was able to show how historians had made several simple mistakes that completely changed the course of their research.
First, they mistranslated the name Colón to Columbus, even though Ferdinand alerted us that Colón is not the same as Columbus. Colombo is Italian, Colombe is French, Colom is Catalan, Palomo is Spanish, Pombo is Portuguese and Columbus is Latin. All these names are the same for they mean Pigeon. However, the discoverer’s name was Colón, as in the English colon, and semi-colon, coming from the Greek κωλον (kólon) meaning Member, just as Ferdinand also informed us.
Second, although many contemporary Spanish writers referred to Cristobal Colón as ginovés” historians missed the important point that in 15th Century Spain, ginovés was slang for “foreigner” and not necessarily confirmation that Columbus was from Genoa. These are two honest mistakes that have led historians in a wild-goose chase to Genoa.
Instead of relying on previous published biographies, Rosa went directly to the medieval sources from multiple kingdoms, plus ancient genealogy and heraldry, in order to cross-reference the historical events with the personalities. In addition, Rosa’s mastery of Spanish and Portuguese, allowed him a more accurate interpretation of these primary source documents, so often prone to errors of translation into English.
By reviewing the ancient documents, chronicles and manuscripts, and taking an active involvement in the DNA studies of Columbus’s bones at the University of Granada, Spain, Mr. Rosa was able to disprove the official narrative as nothing more than a fairytale which was based on repeated misinterpretations of the original facts. Nevertheless, the fact remains that Columbus married Filipa Moniz Perestrelo. Filipa was not only daughter of a high noble and Captain of the Portuguese Island of Porto Santo, but a member of the elite Portuguese Military Order of Santiago, as the newly presented documents show. This makes it impossible for her husband to be a wool-weaver from anywhere. Filipa required the approval of the King of Portugal, Master of the Order of Santiago, in order to marry anyone. Such a granting was a procedure reserved only for someone of high noble standing in Portugal.
It becomes irrelevant what the writers of the last Century, such as Tavianni and Morison concocted about the noble Filipa Moniz. Today we have valid documentation that Filipa Moniz was one of the twelve elite “donnas” of the Portuguese Military Order of Santiago. This new Portuguese document alone, according to Rosa, makes the entirety of the history about an Italian wool-weaver’s son named Colombo a false account.
Aside from the Order of Santiago document, Rosa was also the first to show Columbus’s original coat of arms and to publish the similarities that exist between it and that of the Polish king. The evidence appears irrefutable that Columbus, who had been housed in the palaces of the nobility, had access to royal courts, and married into nobility, could not be, as our history books tell us, the illiterate son of a poor weaver from Genoa.
“Another nutty conspiracy theory! That’s what I first supposed. I now believe that Columbus is guilty of a huge fraud carried out over two decades.” Wrote Prof. James T. McDonough Jr., of St. Joseph’s University.
Columbus never wrote in Italian or Genoese, not even to his two brothers, and the scholars who have dedicated themselves to in-depth research of Christopher Columbus’s language have declared it to be a rough Castilian punctuated by noteworthy and frequent Portuguese words. This is clearly a clue to his Portuguese birth as are Columbus’s own words written to the Spanish court in March 4, 1493 saying that he “left wife and homeland” (Portugal) to go serve the court of Spain.
Now, 21st Century science is shedding more light on the Centuries-old Italian invention of a Genoese Colombo. Prof. José Lorente’s DNA studies prove that the discoverer Cristóbal Colón’s DNA did not match 477 Colombo families from the Genoa area. This constitutes 477 proofs that Colón was not a Colombo.
So, who was Christopher Columbus, or better Cristóbal Colón, if not a poor weaver’s son from Genoa? With so much uncertainty, how can we be sure of what is the truth?
Jon Platakis (right) looks on as Manuel Rosa discusses his book on Columbus with Lithuanian researcher Violeta Rutkauskiene
Jon Platakis (right) looks on as Manuel Rosa discusses his book on Columbus with Lithuanian researcher Violeta Rutkauskiene
When pressed to further expound on his theory, pointing to his extensive research, Rosa confidently, and with source documents to verify his assertions, claims “Colón was a royal prince, son of a Portuguese noblewoman from the Italian Colonna family and a man named Henrique Alemão (Henry the German) resident on the Portuguese island of Madeira.”
Turns out that Henrique Alemão was the false name of none other than King Wladyslaw III (a direct descendent of one of Europe’s greatest ruling dynasties, Lithuania’s Gedimin dynasty). After disappearing in the Battle of Varna in 1444, King Wladyslaw III went into self-exile at the Island of Madeira and hid his identity from the public at large. Ferdinand Colón also claimed that his father was a resident of Madeira.
Rosa has pieced together many previously missed clues, including the fact that Prince Georges Paleologue de Bissipat, an exiled Byzantine nobleman living in France nicknamed “Colombo the Younger”, said to be a relative of Christopher Columbus was also a relative of King Wladyslaw III and that Wladyslaw III descended from the “Kings of Jerusalem” just as Ferdinand states Columbus did.
According to Rosa’s book, documents show that some of Europe’s courts knew exactly who Henrique Alemão was and who Cristóbal Colón was. Their high connections explain why the mystery was perpetrated to hide the famous discoverer’s true identity.
Rosa theorizes that Columbus’s original name was Prince Segismundo Henriques, born on Madeira and son of King Władysław III and his wife Senhorinha Annes, a noblewoman from the Portuguese Sá and Italian Colonna families. Thus the navigator descended from Italian aristocracy as Ferdinand claimed and shortened his mother’s last name Colonna to end up with his new Spanish identity of Colón. The last name, Colón, was mistakenly changed to Colom (Catalan for Pigeon) by the publisher Pedro Posa in April, 1493, and picked up by may other printers over Europe. But all who utilized the names Colom/Colombo/Columbus, were referencing the wrong person.
Is this just another run-of-the-mill conspiracy theory? Not according to historians from University of Lisbon and St. Joseph’s University, and most recently renowned Greek historian, Miltiades Varvounis, who wrote that Rosa’s book “is a magnum opus and by no means should be considered a work of pseudo history or just another source of nutty conspiracy theories. Rosa’s numerous reliable findings and solid theories would make Sherlock Holmes jealous. The History of Columbus has many mixed-up facts and personalities, and maybe the time has come for the discoverer’s life to be finally rewritten.”
Although in Portugal and Poland academics have taken to debating and supporting the new findings, it is lamentable that, up until now, there is little or no debate in America or Lithuania to either accept or contradict Rosa’s findings. It is hoped that Lithuanian publishers, historians and researchers will take an interest in this history altering evidence, as this book deserves an audience not only in Lithuania, but worldwide, since Columbus is a world renowned figure who changed the course of our human history.
Prof. D. Félix Martínez Llorente, of University of Valladolid affirmed “the book is an extensive and well-documented work on the still-enigmatic figure of Christopher Columbus, with evocative and notorious contributions that will, with absolute certainty, be talked about for a long time.”
Based on the extensive research, one can now be assured that the discoverer of America was not the poor wool-weaver’s son from Genoa. Hopefully, in the near future, forensic DNA evidence can be obtained to prove that Christopher Columbus descended from Lithuania’s Royal House but hid his royal lineage to protect a paramount secret. The secret that his father, King Wladyslaw III, did not die at the Battle of Varna in 1444, but survived, and rejecting the crown of Poland, Lithuania and Hungary, went to live out his days in secret exile in Portugal, was the reason for the whole mystery surrounding his identity.
Will Lithuanians now be able to add another page to their already epic history to include the discovery or America?

Friday, March 1, 2013

Columbus "Secret Identity" in Boalsburg, PA

Columbus was a Polish Prince, Claims Visiting Historian.
Chicago Film Crew Will Film His Lecture
and His Visit to the Columbus Chapel on April 6, 2013, 


 (Boalsburg, PA) -  Manuel Rosa, a long-time historical researcher, author of four foreign-language books on Columbus and a native of Portugal, has researched Columbus’ mysterious origins and has come to a conclusion quite different from the conventional wisdom. He has decided that new evidence points to Christopher Columbus being a Polish prince.

Mr. Rosa will visit Centre County on Saturday, April 6, 2013, with a Polish film crew from Chicago. Early in the day he will pay homage to Boalsburg’s Columbus Chapel, the nation’s strongest link with the famed explorer, and then will give a lecture at a reception at 4 pm at the Boal Mansion titled "The Secret identity of Christopher Columbus: Peasant to Viceroy in 33 Days.”

For the last 21 years, Mr. Rosa has investigated and searched out the facts concerning the discovery of America utilizing a non-biased scientific approach that has taken him to Portugal, Spain, the Dominican Republic, Poland and many places in-between in his pursuit of Columbus’ origins. The new information he garnered about Columbus resulted in the publishing of his first book in 2006.

Mr. Rosa has appeared in various TV documentaries, on many European TV and Radio interviews as well as on BBC Radio and WNPR. His book has even been mentioned on Saturday Night Live.

The 4 pm lecture and reception is sponsored by the Boalsburg Village Conservancy. It is free and open to the public. For more information, see or contact 814-466-9266 or

Saturday, February 16, 2013

KOLUMB. Historia Nieznana - magnum opus

Miltiades Varvounis, distinguished Greek-Polish historian, researcher and author of the critically acclaimed Jan Sobieski: The King Who Saved Europe among several other history books, wrote in an extensive article about Manuel Rosa's Polish book on Christopher Columbus saying that KOLUMB. Historia Nieznana:
"... is a magnum opus and by no means should be considered a work of pseudo history or just another source of nutty conspiracy theories. Rosa's numerous reliable findings and solid theories would make Sherlock Holmes jealous. The History of Columbus has many mixed-up facts and personalities, and maybe the time has come for the discoverer's life to be finally rewritten." - Source Lithuanian Heritage Magazine, (January/February 2913) pg. 28.

Tuesday, January 15, 2013

Letter from readers of Kolumb Historia Nieznana

Cracow 15th January, 2013
Dear Manuel Rosa,

We are citizens of Kraków, the city where members of the Jagiellonian dynasty are buried in the Wawel Cathedral, the burial site for Polish monarchs.
We have been deeply moved by your studies on the origins of Christopher Columbus.

The first pieces of information we received were from the press. However, it was after the translation of your book appeared that our curiosity was aroused even more.

We would like to encourage you to conclude the exciting research and prove, or disprove, through DNA testing, whether or not Columbus was a descendant of the Jagiellonian dynasty.

We would like to offer any indispensable help in organizational matters, that is contact with the clergy, Cardinal of Kraków, organization of your stay in Kraków, notification and invitation, with your consent, of the appropriate people, who would be willing to accompany you in uncovering the mystery.

We believe that DNA testing should be carried out on both King Władysław II Jagiełło (the father of King Władysław III of Varna) and his fourth wife Sophia of Halshany since her husband accused her of adultery and she went on trial. Therefore it is possible that the King Władysław III of Varna was not a child of Władysław II Jagiełło. This only points to infidelity of the king’s wife and it does not challenge in any way your research on the origin of Christopher Columbus.

We will be grateful for your response.

At the same time we want to congratulate you on the research done so far in this area.
If you have other plans aimed at confirmation of Christopher Columbus’ identity and our help is not needed, we will keep our fingers crossed for your successful explanation of the fascinating story.

Yours sincerely,

Piotr Trzos
Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum
and Marcin Jedras

Saturday, December 29, 2012

False Documents of the Christopher Columbus story

I have often pointed out how much of the documentation utilized to support the official history of Christopher Columbus is unreliable. The fact is that forgeries were created over the last five centuries, documents were modified, details were invented and facts were censored, discarded and ignored. All of this has been presented in my various books on Columbus. I have succeeded in proving that the Last Will of 1498, also called the Mayorazgo de 1498, was never written by Columbus but fabricated during the Inheritance Lawsuit for the Dukedom of Veragua (los pleitos sobre la sucesión del Estado y Ducado de Veragua) initiated in 1578 and finally put to rest in 1609. 
The lawsuit for one of the greatest inheritances ever left, lasted 31 years. In 31 years a lot of forgeries can be created by those eager to benefit from them. There are many reasons as to why forgeries are created, money being the most important reason. 
I have already shown how the Genoese publications actually fooled the historians with the Assereto Document by cutting out the blank pages and joining together the written pages as if they were continuous, which they are not. Furthermore, there is no way to stitch the Assereto pages together as a single document. If you do try to stitch it together the pages do not read correctly. 
When I began to claim in 2005 that the Assereto was a blatant forgery by the City of Genoa to influence history, I was then told of this short quote from Paolo Emilio Taviani, - still used against me today by those who never read my books - as to why the document is authentic: 
"It is important to bear in mind that at the time when Assereto traced the document, it would have been impossible to make an acceptable facsimile. Nowadays, with modern chemical processes, a document can be 'manufactured', made to look centuries old if need be, with such skill that it is hard to prove it is a fake. Fifty years ago this was still impossible."§ 
Today I am posting here two documents which I declare are forgeries. The "original" forgery is a supposed letter from Columbus to the Genoese Bank of St. George dated 1502. I have not had the opportunity to go see this original in person, but simply by what the text itself says, as well as by the format of the signature, I declare that Columbus could never have written this letter. Someone in Italy forged this letter sometime after Columbus died in an attempt to connect him to the Bank in Genoa.
The "copy" is clearly a forgery since it is almost indistinguishable from the "original" housed in Genoa. Simply by comparing both, it is obvious that one was copied from the other with the intent to fool someone and everyone into accepting that Columbus had written it. 
Look carefully and you will note that all text lines break on the same words, that all strokes of the pen are copied exactly and how the missing text in the original, due to the holes in it, is blank on the copy.•  


Strangely enough, the discoverer, who was supposed to have been born in Genoa and was supposed to have lived there for half his life, wrote this letter to the Genoese Bank not in Genoese but in Castilian. Even stranger is that we are supposed to believe that the Bank's reply, one addressed to Columbus's son the other to Columbus, instead of being written back in Castilian, were written in Genoese, instead. 
The following image shows a letter dated December 8, 1502, that Columbus never received. No letters from the "prestigious" Bank of St. George were ever found in the Discoverer's Archives in Spain, but are found, instead, in the Bank's own archives! Talk about a case of severe miscommunication, the reply is written in the wrong language and found in the sender's hands!

Published in John Boyd Thacher's Christopher Columbus: his life, his works, 
his remains: as revealed by original printed and manuscript records, 1904. 

Now comes the part where I prove how Paolo Emilio Taviani and all his followers are wrong about forgeries in saying and accepting that it was impossible for the Assereto Document to have been forged. Take a good look at the two images of the letter above and see if you can tell the difference between them. The two documents are so close to one another that if one had not been done in vellum and if the other did not have the two holes punched in the middle, it would have been impossible to tell which one was written first.  The "original" with the holes through it came to light in Italy 1829 and has, since then, been housed in Genoa. The "copy" came to light in October 1883, while Henry Harrisse was in Paris. The "copy" was then offered for sale in New York and Chicago in 1887, as told by Mr. Harrisse. The letters are such perfect copies that when you take one and place it on top of the other, they match up almost perfectly, as the photoshop image below shows. (Try it yourself by downloading each letter.)

 The yellow image is of the paper document with the holes in it.
The pink image is of the vellum document. I placed one image over
the other in photoshop and changed the opacity on the pink image so that
the yellow image would bleed through. Note how they match up exactly,
 especially on the signature, where the image below has not overlap at all.
The other text follows the same exact pattern. The lower left leg of
the pink "M" has an upstroke that is not on the yellow. 
This seems to me that this could only have been done with some sort of direct tracing which would have been impossible to do if the "original" was held in the custody of the City of Genoa since 1829. It seems to me that, if one is in vellum and the other on paper, that it would be easier to trace with the paper over the parchment than vice-versa. In such a case the "copy" would have to be the letter held by the City of Genoa and the "original" would be the vellum. Possibly the vellum copy forgery was created first, I don't know how translucent parchment can be in order to trace over another document, but either way, the important thing here is that an exact forgery was done in Italy of an essential document that is used to support the "official narrative" of the peasant wool-weaver and, thus, again Taviani was wrong in saying that forgeries were impossible to create in 1904. 
If such an exact forgery could have been done before 1883, imagine how easy it would be to forge a stand-alone document, one that did not have to match any other document, as is the Assereto?
Needless to say, historians the world over have been fooled for centuries by the many forgeries and adulterated documents and have "agreed" to a history now proven to be a fairytale
New research continues to reveal more and more lies in the history books relating to Columbus and his "discovery" of America. We have not yet uncovered all the lies but at least we have opened the door to reality and begun to shed some light on those old dusty documents, so long held as the "proof", but which turn out to be only proof of a misled world which accepted that the great Admiral and Viceroy had started his life as the poor peasant wool-weaver from Genoa. 
Along with this forgery, I am inserting another type of forgery. That is the forgery of documentation, either by evil intent, by good intent or by ignorance. Forgery of documentation occurs when a document is modified from its original state or copied with wrong information. The case I present next is important because it relates to the first English translation of Peter Martyr's text on the Discovery of America. The reader will note that Peter Martyr, writing in Latin, always called the discoverer by the correct Latin form Colonus and never Columbus. As I have explained many times before, the name Christopher Columbus is not the correct name of the discoverer. His correct name in Spanish is Cristóbal Colón which gives us Christopher Colonus in Latin, while the Latin Christopher Columbus would give us Cristóbal Paloma in Spanish, Columbus/Paloma can never equal Colonus/Colon. Here you can see an explanation of how the name Colon (from the Greek κωλον meaning Member) began to get corrupted, first to Colom (Catalan meaning Pigeon) and then to Colombo (Italian meaning Pigeon) and finally to Columbus, which means Pigeon in Latin. 
I can't put into a blog article the whole of 700 pages of my first book nor KOLUMB. Historia Nieznana (COLUMBUS. Unknown History), however, the important thing is to remember that the name Colonus was wrongly corrupted to Columbus and the following image from Richard Eden book shows this forgery of the documentation in action.
Peter Martyr's original text on the left and Richard Eden's on the right.
The blue arrows show the insertion by Eden that is not on the original. 
 Richard Eden inserted into his translation the following text which is not part of the original text  written  by Peter Martyr. However, Mr. Eden does not bother to alert the reader that he had taken it upon himself to add this text: (otherwise called Columbus) A gentilman of Italy, borne in the citie of Genua. Richard Eden added this information without a reference as to where he got it, trying to put words into  Peter Martyr's mouth. However, it can be safe to say that Eden followed rampant rumors and innuendo and not any official document or statement issued by the Colon family. The Colon family was intentionally hiding the true identity and birthplace of Christopher from the public eye.

Inventions like the one Eden implemented are rampant in the Columbus documents, chronicles and translations but have no factual basis, as is excruciatingly detailed in the three books that I have already published in Portugal, Spain and Poland. We should learn to call the discoverer by his correct name, which was Cristóbal Colón, that is the name Colon has been continuously used until today by his thousands of descendants, and we must systematically denounce the false name of Christopher Columbus because it is the name of an impostor fabricated by unreliable and false Italian documentation that does nothing but add to the confusion. The fact is that, with so much false information, we may never know the true identity of Colon without a wide ranging DNA study, which we hope to be able to perform in the upcoming years. 
 § Christopher Columbus: the grand design, Taviani, Paolo Emilio.
• Christopher Columbus and the Bank of Saint George, Henry Harrisse, Chiswick press; C. Wittingham and co., London, 1888