Wednesday, September 30, 2015

Historian Manuel Rosa to discuss the life of Christopher Columbus at Quinnipiac University

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Historian Manuel Rosa to discuss the life of Christopher Columbus on Oct. 8

Sept. 30, 2015 - Historian Manuel Rosa will discuss the true origin and heritage of Christopher Columbus at noon on Thursday, Oct. 8, in the Carl Hansen Student Center, Room 225, 275 Mount Carmel Ave. 
Rosa's lecture, sponsored by the Central European Institute at Quinnipiac, will present new evidence that shows Columbus was not Italian, but Polish royalty. In 1991, Rosa began a scientific investigation of the life of Columbus taking him to countries, including Portugal, Spain, Poland and the Dominican Republic. He was the only Portuguese historian involved with DNA studies of Columbus' bones at the University of Granada in Spain. 
"We are very excited to host Mr. Rosa at Quinnipiac," said Christopher Ball, director of the Central European Institute. "His lecture on the true origins of Christopher Columbus looks fascinating indeed and typifies the kind of critical thinking and constant questioning we encourage here."
Rosa's first book, "The Columbus Mystery Revealed," was published in 2006. His latest book, "KOLUMB. Historia nieznana" (COLUMBUS. The Untold Story), was published in 2012 and was a bestseller in Poland. 
Alexander Storozynski, distinguished scholar and Polish chair of the Central European Institute, said, "Thanks to much historical digging, Manuel Rosa offers a fascinating look at the roots of Columbus. His work has gained international attention. While the book has been published in several countries, it deserves to be picked up by a major American publishing house a well." 
Rosa is the recipient of the 1976 Boston Globe's Art Merit Award and the Lockheed Martin Lightning Award. He currently works at Duke University. 
The lecture is free and open to the public. For more information, call 203-582-8652.
The Central European Institute builds bridges between the United States and the nations of Central Europe by fostering relationships in academics, business and culture.

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Friday, August 21, 2015


A will without a way. A critical review of how the Christopher Columbus Mayorazgo of 1498 continues to perpetrate a fraud against historians and history. (RI §416163)


The Last Will and Testament of Christopher Columbus dated 1498, known as the Mayorazgo (Majorat), materialized in Spain decades after the discoverer died. The document was presented during the Columbus inheritance lawsuit by an Italian imposter named Balthazar Colombo who was not a family relation. The document includes the statement “being I born in Genoa,” which has been utilized as the crucial proof that the Discoverer of America was born in Genoa, Italy. However, neither the contents of the Mayorazgo nor the circumstances of its creation pass scientific scrutiny. It turns out to be a fraudulent document invented by Balthazar Colombo in his shameless effort to steal from the discoverer’s legitimate heirs the immense inheritance of the Dukedom of Veragua, Admiral of the Indies and Marquis of Jamaica.

I. Colón vs. Colombo: planting the seeds of deceit. II. The Problematic Mayorazgo of 1498. III. Wronged Historians.

Keywords:  Christopher Columbus Last WillMajorat of 1498Balthazar Colombo as impostorColumbus Inheritance LawsuitSuccession to the House of VeraguaFraud and Forgery in Medieval TribunalsCredibility of the Raccolta ColombianaLegal Battles of the Admiral of IndiesMisgivings of Genoese ColumbusColón vs. Colombo vs. Columbus.

Friday, May 29, 2015

Christopher Columbus Never Crashed Off Haiti’s Coast

Historian Challenges Official Story:
Christopher Columbus Never Crashed Off Haiti’s Coast
by Kim Ives
Christopher Columbus, the first European explorer to land on the island the indigenous Arawak people called Ayiti, claimed in his diaries that his flagship, the Santa Maria, hit a reef off the coast near what is now the town of Caracol on Christmas eve 1492. He then supposedly used the ship’s wreckage to build a fort called the “Navidad,” no trace of which has ever been found despite many attempts.
This official story is all a lie, asserts award-winning Portuguese- American historian Manuel Rosa, who has spent the past 24 years researching the life of Columbus and his historic voyage.
In fact, Columbus beached the Santa Maria on the shore at Caracol and possibly built a moat around it, turning the ship itself into the Navidad, Mr. Rosa says.
When Columbus left Ayiti (which he renamed Hispaniola) to return to Spain with the Nina and the Pinta, he purposely fired a cannon ball through the Santa Maria’s hull to make it impossible for the 39 men he left behind to flee the island. Three of them were envoys of the Spanish royal court who could have revealed the truth.
On June 9 and 10, Mr. Rosa will visit Caracol with a television crew from the Travel Channel’s show “Expedition Unknown” to
search for evidence of his theory, which he has presented in two books: “The Columbus Mystery Revealed” (2006) and “Columbus: The Untold Story” (2009). The books have been published to great acclaim in Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, and Lithuanian. (Mr. Rosa is currently looking for a publisher for the English version of the latter book, for which he has a finished manuscript.)
Mr. Rosa is asking any Haitians round Caracol who may (Continue Reading at Haiti Liberté's website, see on page 9)..... 

Thursday, October 2, 2014


Was Christopher Columbus Polish Royalty?

Christopher Columbus’ origins have long been shrouded in mystery – was he Italian? Spanish? Greek? None of the above:
In fact, his father was a Polish king, argues Columbus expert Manuel Rosa. Rosa holds that the adventurer’s father was King Vladislav III, who was not killed at the 1444 Battle of Varna, as thought. Instead, old Portuguese documents support Rosa’s theory that King Vladislav went into secret exile, married a Portuguese noblewoman, and had a son who, argues Rosa, went on to become known as Columbus. Columbus lied about his own identity to protect his father’s real identity.

After 23 years of research and with five academic books published, Manuel Rosa sets out the case that conventional understanding of Columbus’ history is not only misleading but utilizes false documents in support of an invented Fairy Tale about a Genoese wool-weaver.

THE POLISH AMERICAN BUSINESS CLUB, THE POLISH INSTITUTE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES and PSFCU cordially invite to a book signing and a lecture by Manuel Rosa titled:


WHEN: Columbus Day, October 13th, 2014 @6:30pm

WHERE: Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America,
208 East 30th Street, New York, NY
Space limited. RSVP to

Mr. Rosa’s 23-year investigation unearthed unknown facts regarding historical documents discovered in various countries, the information that the supposedly Italian Columbus did not even use Italian in his letters, not even to his brothers. Add to this the sheer impossibility of a peasant Columbus being able to marry into the socially-superior nobility in Portugal plus have direct access to several monarchs in order to carry out his quest and it becomes apparent how the history we learned was not accurate. In short, academics now are forced to acknowledge that the Discoverer of America was no simple wool-weaver’s son from Genoa.

According to Mr. Rosa’s research, Columbus was in fact the son of a Portuguese noblewoman, and the mysterious Henrique Alemao, a false Portuguese name utilized by none other than Wladyslaw III, former King of Poland who lived incognito on the Portuguese Island of Madeira.

Manuel Rosa is a Portuguese-American historian and author who emigrated from the Azores to the Boston area in 1973 with his parents. In his early professional life he was employed as a graphic artist working on books and national magazines including The Atlantic Monthly and Boston Magazine and currently works at Duke University. He is also a recipient of the 1976 Boston Globe’s Art Merit Award and the Lockheed Martin Lightning Award. For the last 23 years, Mr. Rosa has investigated and searched out the facts concerning the Christopher Columbus’s discovery of America utilizing a non-biased scientific approach that has taken him to Portugal, Spain, Dominican Republic, Poland and many places in-between in a relentless pursuit of the truth.

The new information he garnered about Christopher Columbus resulted in the publishing of his first book in 2006, O Mistério Colombo Revelado in Portugal, followed by COLÓN. La Historia nunca contada published in Spain.
In May 2012, Kolumb. Historia Nieznana became a bestseller in Poland and in February 2014 Kolumbas. Atskleistoji istorija was published in Lithuania.

Another nutty conspiracy theory!! That’s what I first supposed. I now believe that Christopher Columbus is guilty of a huge fraud carried out over two decades.” - James T. McDonough, Jr., Ph.D. Professor for 31 years at St. Joseph’s University.

Mr. Rosa’s tenacity as an investigative historian results in an undeniable case for Columbus being a highly skilled, international spy whose real identity and mission is, only now, coming to light,”! said Thom MacNamara, production executive, who is adapting the script for Chelsea Multi-Media.! “We believe this will be a blockbuster, thriller film that will reveal the surprisingly sophisticated world of fifteenth century, geopolitical espionage.”!

Saturday, June 7, 2014

Haitian Shipwreck is not Columbus’s Santa Maria - A Response

News claims that the shipwreck found off the Northern coast of Haiti is Columbus’s famous Santa Maria flagship are not accurate according to the documentation.

Contrary to recent news, the wreck found off the Northern coast of Haiti is not Columbus’s famous Santa Maria flagship because the vessel did not sink, as Columbus claimed. The flagship was purposely dragged up onto the beach of Caracol, re-christened Natividad and ordered shot side-to-side by a cannonball on January 2, 1493. This cannonball intentionally disabled and marooned the Santa Maria.
In stunning rebuttal to the supposed finding of the Santa Maria by treasure hunter Barry Clifford, historian Manuel Rosa goes into great detail in his book “Columbus-The Untold Story.” In the comprehensive book, Rosa details how Columbus continuously lied to Queen Isabella, including evidence of how the Santa Maria never sank off the coast of Haiti and gives three reasons why Columbus had to maroon the Santa Maria:
1- So that those left behind could not follow him home.
2- So that Spain was forced to send a rescue fleet.
3- Because the Santa Maria would have been highly dangerous to sail back through the winter seas of the Azores.

Furthermore, Rosa asserts that the explorer made sure to take back all the pilots with him, so that, if those marooned could repair the hole in the ship’s hull, they would not know how to reach Spain.
Columbus-The Untold Story has been published in four languages in Europe and seeks an English-language publisher. Documented in great detail in Chapter 10 of Rosa’s 480-page manuscript* and accompanied by freehand illustrations drawn by Columbus himself is a map of Española (A) during the first voyage of 1492. Map (B) clearly shows the location of the ship, which Columbus called Natividad. When compared with Google satellite images of today (C), one can see how well the two maps match up.

Contradictions and Discrepancies:
1- Columbus’s own Ship Log declares that the Santa Maria was “en tierra”, that is “on land”, on January 2, 1493.
2- The banks where the Santa Maria supposedly sank on Christmas Day, 1492, are 6 miles offshore. How did the supposedly sunken ship end up onshore 8 days later?

Was it all a ruse to trick the Spanish Crown into sending him on a second voyage? Was the deception a pretense for marooning the Spanish crown's overseers because they could have blown Columbus's cover had they returned to court with him? Perhaps the truth is Christopher Columbus was not working for Spain, but against it. The totality of the evidence presented in Rosa’s book suggests Columbus was a secret agent; fiercely loyal to Portugal’s king, Isabella’s nemesis. All of Columbus’s actions were calculated to prevent scrutiny, hide his tracks and allow for Portugal to control the spice trade of India, while denying Spain access to that same route. By marooning his own ship, Columbus was free to report to the court of Queen Isabella whatever lies he wanted without the court’s overseers from the 1492 voyage contradicting him, exactly as he did.

Columbus’s advice to the Spanish Court culminated in the signing of the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, which gave Portugal free access to the Indian Spice Trade Route while at the same time denying Spain access to that profitable route.
In his logbook, Columbus recorded the ship lost on coral banks, located one and a half leagues (6 miles) offshore from the beach where the Santa Maria was shot on January 2. On January 2, the ship was safe and sound on today’s Caracol Beach. Columbus wrote, “porque ella quedó sana como quando partió” because she was as sound as when she had left (Spain). However, he shot it with a cannonball. How could a ship that sank six miles offshore, lying on its side and taking on water, as he cleverly described it in the logbook, succeed in reaching a sandy beach six miles away in order to be shot by a cannon? This feat would require a large crane and diesel powered tugboats available only some 400 years later.

Therefore, the Santa Maria could only get to Caracol Beach under its own power and thus, it never sank or ran aground, as the explorer declared to the court. The whole report of the ship sinking on those banks off the coast of Haiti was a lie to not have to explain why he marooned the crew and why the court’s overseers did not return with him to Spain. It is only by locating the banks on a map, following details from the Ship Log, that one can clearly see Columbus’s deception.

One of the Santa Maria’s anchors, today in a Haitian museum at Port-au-Prince, was found at a plantation in Limonade, just 6 miles from Caracol. How could such a heavy anchor have floated to land from 6 miles offshore? Furthermore, the bell from the Santa Maria was found in 1994 off the coast of Portugal, near the ship San Salvador, which sank in 1555. Many puzzled over how the Santa Maria’s bell survived when the rest of the ship sank. The only answer is that the Santa Maria never sank, as Rosa claims to show. When the Haitian natives decided to burn the Santa Maria in late 1493, the bell survived because it was metal, and was recovered by Columbus upon his return to Natividad on November 28, 1493. The bell had been stored in Santo Domingo until it was shipped to Spain in 1555.

The fact remains that anyone looking for the Santa Maria in the ocean has not fully understood Columbus’s Ship Log, nor the ruse he was taking part in, and is wasting their time since the ship was left on land and was later burned to ashes by the natives.

* COLUMBUS-The Untold Story, Related book titles and References:
- O Mistério Colombo ReveladoPortugal, 2006 (ISBN-13: 978-9728605865)
- Colombo Português-Novas RevelaçõesPortugal, 2009 (ISBN-13: 978-9898092533)
- Colón. La Historia Nunca Contada, Spain, 2010 (ISBN-13: 978-9898092663)
- Kolumb. Historia Nieznana, Poland, 2012 (ISBN-13: 978-8375107227)
- Kolumbas. Atskleistoji istorija, Lithuania, (ISBN-13: 978-9955739449)  -

For Further Information, Contact Alex Burke - Media Relations 
Aposse Holdings (402)760-1511 
CMC® Dallas / NY / Los Angeles / 2014 All Rights Reserved

Monday, May 19, 2014

Film & Television Production for "Columbus - The Untold Story"

May 1, 2014, Dallas Texas CMC announces rights deal for Columbus - The Untold Story

Notable author Manuel Rosa has agreed to terms with film & television production company CMC for the rights to Rosa’s sensational book, Columbus - The Untold Story. The deal affords CMC the world-wide rights to produce a variety of multimedia products emanating from the book and unveils the works of Manuel Rosa to an English-speaking audience for the first time. 
CMC President John Lage commented; “We have the highest expectations that the American people will be as fascinated with this depiction as they were with the Da Vinci Code. Be prepared. Everything you ever learned about Columbus was legend and fabricated for the European audience of the time because great sums of money and power were involved.” 

James T. McDonough, Jr., a 31-year professor at St. Joseph’s University commented; "Another nutty conspiracy theory! That’s what I first supposed. I now believe that Columbus is guilty of a huge fraud carried out over decades." 

For Further Information, Contact Alex Burke - Media Relations 
Aposse Holdings (402)760-1511 
CMC® Dallas / NY / Los Angeles / 2014 All Rights Reserved

Thursday, April 3, 2014


at 11:55am

Come hear guest speaker, Manuel Rosa, Historian and Author of 5 foreign language books on the falsified history of the "Discoverer of America". Mr. Rosa participated in the DNA studies of Columbus bones, has been featured on BBC and WNPR and will present facts gathered over his 23 years of scientific research that show the current history of Columbus includes fraudulent documents, intentional lies, and patriotic inventions, all meant to cover-up the true identity of Columbus as well as his real reason for the 1492 voyage. A controversial author of a controversial subject that has puzzled academics for 500 years.

The audience will have opportunity to ask questions after the lecture.

Sponsored by Duke's Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies and Mi Gente 

- Free to the Public -

Tuesday, September 17, 2013

Fundacja Kościuszkowska Polska - COLUMBUS DAY 2013

Was Columbus Polish?
MONDAY, OCTOBER 14, 2013, AT 5:00PM
Manuel Rosa will be presenting a lecture at The Kosciuszko Foundation de-shrouding the myth surrounding the man who discovered America.

The event, an extension of the Kosciuszko Foundation's partnership with Early Music Foundation's New York Early Music Celebration 2013: Pro Musica Polonica, is sure to raise thought-provoking inquiries into our assumed knowledge of Christopher Columbus, the man!

In THE SECRET IDENTITY OF COLUMBUS: PEASANT TO VICEROY IN 33 DAYS Rosa sets out to prove that Columbus' history has never been examined or questioned, and is in fact misleading at best. Mr. Rosa's 22 year adventurous investigation involved the discovery of unknown facts regarding historical documents, the information that the supposedly Italian Columbus rarely even used the language in his correspondences, and the sheer impossibility of a peasant Columbus being able to marry into nobility and carry out his quest. In short, Columbus was no simple wool-weaver's son.

His lectures, presented at universities, schools and organizations in Portugal, Spain, Poland, Switzerland, and USA, are succeeding in convincing attendees that the history of Columbus that we knew contained little truth and his books have become the standard by which Columbus biographies are being judged. Mr. Rosa was also the only Portuguese historian involved with DNA studies of Columbus' bones at the University of Granada.
Mr. Rosa will be selling limited quantities of his book, published in Polish:  "KOLUMB. Historia Nieznana" and is due to release his book,  KOLUMBAS. ATSKLEISTA ISTORIJA in Lithuania (February 2014).
The lecture will be held at the KF house on October 14th, to coincide with Columbus Day. 

Wednesday, August 7, 2013

KOLUMBAS. Atskleista istorija ??


Sunday, March 24, 2013

Christopher Columbus’s True Identity Unmasked

By Jon Platakis - Founder/Chairman of the National Lithuanian American Hall of Fame, exclusive for the Lithuania Tribune

Will the National Lithuanian American Hall of Fame have Christopher Columbus as a new candidate for induction? The answer looks to be yes, according to a new theory that Columbus was the Portuguese-born son to the King of Poland, Hungary and Lithuania, Wladyslaw III.
How could this be true? The hypothesis supporting Columbus’s royal origins was first published in 2009 in the Spanish book “COLON: La Historia Nunca Contada,” and then in 2012 in the best-selling Polish book, “KOLUMB: Historia Nieznana,” both written by Manuel Rosa, a Portuguese-American historian and author who has been recasting the Columbus biography in the light of recently uncovered evidence.
Book author - Manuel Rosa
On April 6, 2013, Manuel Rosa will present a lecture at Boalsburg’s Columbus Chapel, in Boalsburg, PA, ( where more evidence will be presented supporting his conclusion that Columbus was of Polish-Lithuanian descent.

The fact that Columbus used some 80 Portuguese toponyms to name the New World, and that he never wrote in Italian, but did write in Portuguese flavored Spanish, and referred to Portugal as his homeland constitute clues to his Portuguese identity. To substantiate the noble birth, Rosa points out that Columbus and his two brothers had easy access to four courts in Europe, and one brother even lived as a guest of the King of France, all of this long before 1492. Among the more intriguing new pieces of evidence, Rosa shows that the Last Will of 1498 (Mayorazgo or deed of primogeniture), where Columbus supposedly claimed to be “born in Genoa,” is a forgery written by a Genoese interloper long after Columbus died. Henry Harrisse had considered the 1498 Last Will a forgery from a later period, but Rosa was the first to prove that the document was falsified.
After reading the known biographies of Columbus, one realizes that there are enough bits and pieces to support the idea that Columbus, his biographer son Fernando, and the court of Spain made herculean efforts to obscure his true identity and origins. Columbus even changed his name in Spain to that of Cristóbal Colón in order to distance himself from his true lineage. Cristóbal Colón is the only name he ever used during his public life and there is no record in Spain of what his original name was. That by itself does not prove Columbus was royalty, but it appears that, if the identity was successfully obscured during his lifetime, it is almost impossible at this point in history to definitively prove Columbus’s true identity without forensic research. All that remains is the evidence that the obscuring was done and a few clues pointing to his true identity.
Over the centuries, many respected historians came up with different opinions about the true birthplace of Columbus. They had to speculate about what the truth might be since little evidence remains. The majority of scholars came to a conviction that Cristóbal Colón, discoverer, was the same person as Cristoforo Colombo, Genoese wool-weaver, while other historians supported their own convictions that the wool-weaver and the discoverer could not be the same person.
The Italian historian, Paolo Emilio Taviani, fierce proponent of the Genoese Colombo wrote: “What wild imaginings could have generated a Greek Columbus, an English Columbus, three French Columbuses, and, as if that were not enough, a Corsican Columbus, a Swiss Columbus, and three Portuguese Columbuses? For an explanation, we can look only to the immeasurable greatness of Columbus’s achievement and to its profound consequences on the course of human history.
Antonio Ballesteros Beretta wrote: “One person is responsible for the polemics about the birthplace of Christopher Columbus, and that person is his own son Ferdinand, who, in his biography of his father, displayed ignorance and doubts on a subject which, on the contrary, he should have known well. His dubious attitude” continues Ballesteros, “about the Discoverer’s origins has given rise to an endless series of hypotheses, some of which are farfetched and fantastic.” Ballesteros adamantly stuck to the belief that Christopher and his son Ferdinand were peasants who wanted to conceal, with a “claim of noble ancestry, their humble wool-weaving origins.”
Stanley Balzekas, (Owner of Balzekas Museum of Lithuanian Culture in Chicago) Eglė Juodvalkė (Lithuanian author and poet), Manuel Rosa and Eric Steele (Columbus authors), Henryk Skwarczynski (Polish author) and Rita Janz (director of Balzekas Museum)
Stanley Balzekas, (Owner of Balzekas Museum of Lithuanian Culture in Chicago) Eglė Juodvalkė (Lithuanian author and poet), Manuel Rosa and Eric Steele (Columbus authors), Henryk Skwarczynski (Polish author) and Rita Janz (director of Balzekas Museum)
Another historian, Felipe Fernández-Armesto wrote that “The Catalan, French, Galician, Greek, Ibizan, Jewish, Majorcan,Polish, Scottish, and other increasingly silly Columbuses concocted by historical fantasists are agenda-driven creations.” Like many, Fernández-Armesto, claimed that the“evidence of Columbus’s origins in Genoa is overwhelming,” referring to certain Genoese documents purported to be “beyond the possibility of doubt” about Columbus’s early life. They claim those documents identify the discoverer Colón as the son of Domenico Colombo, a wool-weaver from Genoa.
These Genoese documents were proudly published by the City of Genoa in 1892 and 1896 in a collection of books known by its short tile of Raccolta Colombiana. There one can clearly see that the Cristoforo Colombo of Genoa was by trade nothing more than a lanaiolo: a lowly wool-weaver, son of another wool-weaver.
Mr. Taviani and the other supporters of the Genoese Columbus, however, completely downplayed the fact that the discoverer was a man with extensive schooling who moved within noble circles and that, in Spain, Columbus’s origins were maintained secret from the public. Thus, the Genoese theory discarded many inconvenient truths and invented details to mesh the weaver’s life with the discoverer’s life.
One of the questions we asked Mr. Rosa was how could these accepted documents be contested?
“In actuality there should not even be a need to contest them, because anyone who spends a few hours looking at them will realize that the documents from Genoa are related to a completely different person and have nothing to do with the life of the discoverer. However, since those documents have been accepted for over a century as being related to the discoverer, one is forced to explain them,” Mr. Rosa stated.
When pressed for more specifics, he advises reading his books carefully as they cover 22 years of scientific research that tackle each issue step by step. “However”, he cautioned, “keep in mind that most of the documents in the Raccolta Colombiana are fodder and irrelevant to the solution of Columbus’s identity. Some of the documents do not even exist from the date they were supposedly created but are only referenced in other documents centuries later. Other documents are forged to add information that was not there initially.”
In fact, copies of documents that made it out of Genoa prior to the start of the Columbus controversy, such as Antonio Gallo’s chronicle, do not even mention Columbus, while Gallo’s copy found in Genoa today does. Of the four manuscripts that are attributed to Gallo, where the “Columbus brothers” are mentioned, (British Codex, Torino Codex, Civica Genoa Codex and Federici Codex) NOT ONE is from 1506, when Gallo wrote his chronicle. They are copies done in the 17th and 18th Centuries. Interestingly the Codex stored in the Library of Copenhagen “Ms. Reale antico fondo n. 2205″ the oldest writing from the sixteenth century – therefore written long before the British, Torino, Civica and Federici codexes – has nothing in it about “Columbus brothers”! Clearly Gallo had not written this additional text about Columbus before he died, someone added it later. The famous Asseretto Document was doctored in the Italian publications to remove several blank pages, fraudulently making it look like the text was continuous.
These are only some examples that show how unreliable the Genoese documents and the Raccolta Colombiana are to solving the mystery of Columbus’s identity. “What the Raccolta Colombiana did was help to cover up the truth for yet another 100 years” claims Rosa.
Considered one of today’s leading scholars on the life of Columbus, Mr. Rosa points out that Ferdinand Colón, the discoverer’s son, claimed that his father descended not only from Italian aristocracy, but from the legendary Roman General Colonius and that people were wrong to call him “Christopher Columbus” in Latin, warning that the correct Latin form is “Christopher Colonus.” While historians widely inferred that Christopher Columbus used this noble persona to ingratiate himself to the good graces of the Spanish court in an elaborate illusion to mask a humble weaver background, Rosa thinks Ferdinand was telling the truth. The historians, going against solid evidence in Spain and Portugal, came up with the wrong solution swapping “Cristobal Colón” for a “genovés Cristoforo Colombo.”
The particulars were not always obvious, but because of his familiarity with the Portuguese history of the discoveries and fluency in several languages, Rosa was able to see that something was not right in the official narrative. His biggest clue came when he learned that Columbus had married a Portuguese noblewoman in 1479, a full 14 years before becoming famous in Spain. Knowing that peasants and wool-weavers could never marry nobility, it was apparent something was not correct. By examining more carefully Columbus’s assumed identity, he was able to show how historians had made several simple mistakes that completely changed the course of their research.
First, they mistranslated the name Colón to Columbus, even though Ferdinand alerted us that Colón is not the same as Columbus. Colombo is Italian, Colombe is French, Colom is Catalan, Palomo is Spanish, Pombo is Portuguese and Columbus is Latin. All these names are the same for they mean Pigeon. However, the discoverer’s name was Colón, as in the English colon, and semi-colon, coming from the Greek κωλον (kólon) meaning Member, just as Ferdinand also informed us.
Second, although many contemporary Spanish writers referred to Cristobal Colón as ginovés” historians missed the important point that in 15th Century Spain, ginovés was slang for “foreigner” and not necessarily confirmation that Columbus was from Genoa. These are two honest mistakes that have led historians in a wild-goose chase to Genoa.
Instead of relying on previous published biographies, Rosa went directly to the medieval sources from multiple kingdoms, plus ancient genealogy and heraldry, in order to cross-reference the historical events with the personalities. In addition, Rosa’s mastery of Spanish and Portuguese, allowed him a more accurate interpretation of these primary source documents, so often prone to errors of translation into English.
By reviewing the ancient documents, chronicles and manuscripts, and taking an active involvement in the DNA studies of Columbus’s bones at the University of Granada, Spain, Mr. Rosa was able to disprove the official narrative as nothing more than a fairytale which was based on repeated misinterpretations of the original facts. Nevertheless, the fact remains that Columbus married Filipa Moniz Perestrelo. Filipa was not only daughter of a high noble and Captain of the Portuguese Island of Porto Santo, but a member of the elite Portuguese Military Order of Santiago, as the newly presented documents show. This makes it impossible for her husband to be a wool-weaver from anywhere. Filipa required the approval of the King of Portugal, Master of the Order of Santiago, in order to marry anyone. Such a granting was a procedure reserved only for someone of high noble standing in Portugal.
It becomes irrelevant what the writers of the last Century, such as Tavianni and Morison concocted about the noble Filipa Moniz. Today we have valid documentation that Filipa Moniz was one of the twelve elite “donnas” of the Portuguese Military Order of Santiago. This new Portuguese document alone, according to Rosa, makes the entirety of the history about an Italian wool-weaver’s son named Colombo a false account.
Aside from the Order of Santiago document, Rosa was also the first to show Columbus’s original coat of arms and to publish the similarities that exist between it and that of the Polish king. The evidence appears irrefutable that Columbus, who had been housed in the palaces of the nobility, had access to royal courts, and married into nobility, could not be, as our history books tell us, the illiterate son of a poor weaver from Genoa.
“Another nutty conspiracy theory! That’s what I first supposed. I now believe that Columbus is guilty of a huge fraud carried out over two decades.” Wrote Prof. James T. McDonough Jr., of St. Joseph’s University.
Columbus never wrote in Italian or Genoese, not even to his two brothers, and the scholars who have dedicated themselves to in-depth research of Christopher Columbus’s language have declared it to be a rough Castilian punctuated by noteworthy and frequent Portuguese words. This is clearly a clue to his Portuguese birth as are Columbus’s own words written to the Spanish court in March 4, 1493 saying that he “left wife and homeland” (Portugal) to go serve the court of Spain.
Now, 21st Century science is shedding more light on the Centuries-old Italian invention of a Genoese Colombo. Prof. José Lorente’s DNA studies prove that the discoverer Cristóbal Colón’s DNA did not match 477 Colombo families from the Genoa area. This constitutes 477 proofs that Colón was not a Colombo.
So, who was Christopher Columbus, or better Cristóbal Colón, if not a poor weaver’s son from Genoa? With so much uncertainty, how can we be sure of what is the truth?
Jon Platakis (right) looks on as Manuel Rosa discusses his book on Columbus with Lithuanian researcher Violeta Rutkauskiene
Jon Platakis (right) looks on as Manuel Rosa discusses his book on Columbus with Lithuanian researcher Violeta Rutkauskiene
When pressed to further expound on his theory, pointing to his extensive research, Rosa confidently, and with source documents to verify his assertions, claims “Colón was a royal prince, son of a Portuguese noblewoman from the Italian Colonna family and a man named Henrique Alemão (Henry the German) resident on the Portuguese island of Madeira.”
Turns out that Henrique Alemão was the false name of none other than King Wladyslaw III (a direct descendent of one of Europe’s greatest ruling dynasties, Lithuania’s Gedimin dynasty). After disappearing in the Battle of Varna in 1444, King Wladyslaw III went into self-exile at the Island of Madeira and hid his identity from the public at large. Ferdinand Colón also claimed that his father was a resident of Madeira.
Rosa has pieced together many previously missed clues, including the fact that Prince Georges Paleologue de Bissipat, an exiled Byzantine nobleman living in France nicknamed “Colombo the Younger”, said to be a relative of Christopher Columbus was also a relative of King Wladyslaw III and that Wladyslaw III descended from the “Kings of Jerusalem” just as Ferdinand states Columbus did.
According to Rosa’s book, documents show that some of Europe’s courts knew exactly who Henrique Alemão was and who Cristóbal Colón was. Their high connections explain why the mystery was perpetrated to hide the famous discoverer’s true identity.
Rosa theorizes that Columbus’s original name was Prince Segismundo Henriques, born on Madeira and son of King Władysław III and his wife Senhorinha Annes, a noblewoman from the Portuguese Sá and Italian Colonna families. Thus the navigator descended from Italian aristocracy as Ferdinand claimed and shortened his mother’s last name Colonna to end up with his new Spanish identity of Colón. The last name, Colón, was mistakenly changed to Colom (Catalan for Pigeon) by the publisher Pedro Posa in April, 1493, and picked up by may other printers over Europe. But all who utilized the names Colom/Colombo/Columbus, were referencing the wrong person.
Is this just another run-of-the-mill conspiracy theory? Not according to historians from University of Lisbon and St. Joseph’s University, and most recently renowned Greek historian, Miltiades Varvounis, who wrote that Rosa’s book “is a magnum opus and by no means should be considered a work of pseudo history or just another source of nutty conspiracy theories. Rosa’s numerous reliable findings and solid theories would make Sherlock Holmes jealous. The History of Columbus has many mixed-up facts and personalities, and maybe the time has come for the discoverer’s life to be finally rewritten.”
Although in Portugal and Poland academics have taken to debating and supporting the new findings, it is lamentable that, up until now, there is little or no debate in America or Lithuania to either accept or contradict Rosa’s findings. It is hoped that Lithuanian publishers, historians and researchers will take an interest in this history altering evidence, as this book deserves an audience not only in Lithuania, but worldwide, since Columbus is a world renowned figure who changed the course of our human history.
Prof. D. Félix Martínez Llorente, of University of Valladolid affirmed “the book is an extensive and well-documented work on the still-enigmatic figure of Christopher Columbus, with evocative and notorious contributions that will, with absolute certainty, be talked about for a long time.”
Based on the extensive research, one can now be assured that the discoverer of America was not the poor wool-weaver’s son from Genoa. Hopefully, in the near future, forensic DNA evidence can be obtained to prove that Christopher Columbus descended from Lithuania’s Royal House but hid his royal lineage to protect a paramount secret. The secret that his father, King Wladyslaw III, did not die at the Battle of Varna in 1444, but survived, and rejecting the crown of Poland, Lithuania and Hungary, went to live out his days in secret exile in Portugal, was the reason for the whole mystery surrounding his identity.
Will Lithuanians now be able to add another page to their already epic history to include the discovery or America?